Eruptive and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, based on AUV mapping data and lava flow ages

TitleEruptive and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, based on AUV mapping data and lava flow ages
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsClague, DA, Dreyer, BM, Paduan, JB, Martin, JF, Caress, DW, Gill, JB, Kelley, DS, Thomas, H, Portner, RA, Delaney, JR, Guilderson, TP, McGann, ML
JournalGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
KeywordsAUV ABE (Autonomous Benthic Explorer)

High-resolution bathymetric surveys from autonomous underwater vehicles ABE and D. Allan B. were merged to create a coregistered map of 71.7 km(2) of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera in cores from three dives of remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts provide minimum eruption ages for 40 lava flows that are combined with the bathymetric data to outline the eruptive and tectonic history. The ages range from Modern to 10,700 marine-calibrated years before present (yr BP). During a robust magmatic phase from {\textgreater}10,700 yr BP to approximate to 4300 yr BP, flows erupted from an axial high and many flowed {\textgreater}5 km down the flanks; some partly buried adjacent valleys. Axial magma chambers (AMCs) may have been wider than today to supply dike intrusions over a 2 km wide axial zone. Summit Seamount formed by approximate to 4770 yr BP and was subsequently dismembered during a period of extension with little volcanism starting approximate to 4300 yr BP. This tectonic phase with only rare volcanic eruptions lasted until approximate to 2300 yr BP and may have resulted in near-solidification of the AMCs. The axial graben formed by crustal extension during this period of low magmatic activity. Infrequent eruptions occurred on the flanks between 2620-1760 yr BP and within the axial graben since approximate to 1750 yr BP. This most recent phase of limited volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity that began approximate to 2300 yr BP defines a hydrothermal phase of ridge development that coincides with the present-day 1 km wide AMCs and overlying hydrothermal vent fields.